Allergies in children and babies are not limited to food and pollen as you think! There are many types of allergies, and they all present with different symptoms.
Let’s see, what are the most common types of allergies in children and babies, what symptoms do they show and how are they treated? We explained it all in this article!
What is an allergy?
Allergy, in general terms, is the body’s perception of an actually harmless factor as a foreign and dangerous substance and reacting to it. These factors can be a food or dust on the table! An element that is healthy for most people can create serious problems for the allergy sufferer.
Allergies usually occur due to certain disorders in the immune system. It can also carry genetic features.
What is allergic asthma (allergic bronchitis)?
Asthma; a disease of the respiratory tract that sends air to the lungs. Asthma, which has been observed to affect especially young children and people living in the city in recent years, has a chronic, recurrent feature.
What are the causes of asthma?
- Air pollution,
- Food allergies (such as milk, eggs) in the first 3 years of age,
- Other respiratory diseases
- Causes such as genetic transmission affect the development of asthma.
What are the symptoms of asthma?
- chest wheezing (especially at night and early morning)
- severe cough ,
- Shortness of breath,
- Conditions such as rapid breathing are the most typical asthma symptoms. These symptoms are seen so severely when the factor that triggers the allergy is encountered that a serious seizure called an “asthma attack” may occur.
What are the factors that trigger an asthma attack?
- dusty environments,
- house mites,
- Cold weather,
- Cigarette smoke,
- To exercise,
- Some allergenic foods such as milk, eggs,
- The smell of household cleaning materials,
- Causes such as stress are among the factors that trigger asthma attacks.
How is asthma treatment?
It is not yet possible to completely eliminate asthma. Therefore, the aim of the treatment of allergic asthma is to reduce the child’s symptoms and the frequency of attacks. For children with persistent asthma attacks, cortisone-weighted drugs are usually prescribed.
There are 2 types of asthma medications used for this purpose.
Quick-relief rescue drugs: The purpose of these drugs is to provide immediate relief in a crisis. These drugs open the narrowed airways and eliminate shortness of breath and wheezing. These drugs make a compress known as a puff or nebulizer, convert the drug inside into steam and are taken into the body by breathing. In which cases and in what dose it will be taken is determined by the child’s doctor.
Control drugs: These drugs are used every day. It is prescribed to control asthma, prevent wheezing.
What can you do to prevent your child’s asthma attacks?
- You can cover your pillow, mattress and carpet with special anti-allergic covers.
- You can use polyester fiber for pillows and quilts instead of materials such as feathers and cotton.
- To prevent mites, you can wash all your clothes, toys and similar items in hot water 1-2 times a week.
- You can limit her contact with animals, or you can have her change her clothes and wash her hands immediately after petting animals.
- To keep your child’s room clean, you can put an air filter in his room.
- You can use odorless, less chemical-containing cleaning materials.
- You can try to reduce mold in the house.
- You can try to keep your child away from cigarette smoke.
What is eczema in children and babies?
Eczema; a disease that appears on the skin and can be seen with rashes in various forms. It shows allergic properties especially in babies, but there are cases where it is temporary.
What causes allergic eczema in babies? What are the symptoms?
There are two different types of eczema.
Atopic eczema: This type of allergy dries out the skin, causing it to peel, itch, and flake. From time to time, it can also cause water-filled blisters to appear on the skin.
This type of allergy, which can occur in babies from the age of 2 months, begins to appear on the cheeks and forehead. If it started in infancy, it disappears around 2-3 years of age. The most prominent feature of atopic eczema in infants is severe itching. This is why it is distinguished from types such as seborrheic dermatitis.
Contact dermatitis: This type of allergy develops after the skin comes into contact with an irritant or agent. As an example of these;
- acidic juices,
- bath bubbles,
- Hard soaps, shampoos,
- nickel jewelry,
- shoe polishes,
- dyes used in clothes,
- Plants such as ivy, oak,
- Hard textured or woolen fabrics,
- The baby’s own saliva can be given.
As a result of these, redness and dryness occur on the skin of the baby, and there is no itching like atopic dermatitis. When the contact with the factors mentioned above disappears, the symptoms also disappear.
How is the treatment of allergic eczema in children?
Treatment begins when a dermatologist confirms that your child has allergic eczema. The doctor will recommend a cream, ointment or lotion to your child to reduce itching and relieve dryness. You should use all of these allergy medications for as long as your doctor recommends.
Apart from these, you can try the following methods to make your baby less affected by allergic eczema:
- You can give your child frequent warm showers. You can apply moisturizing creams and ointments right after your shower to keep the moisture in your body.
- Instead of hard, woolen fabrics, you can choose clothes made of softer materials.
- If there is excessive itching or discharge, you can apply a warm compress to the area.
What is a food allergy?
Food allergy occurs when the child’s immune system perceives normally harmless foods as dangerous and reacts abnormally to it. When these foods are consumed, the immune system starts to fight by producing antibodies for this food, which it thinks is dangerous. However, allergic reactions occur.
Food allergy is common, especially until the baby is 1 year old. After this process, allergy symptoms usually disappear. However, it can be seen that some continue.
What foods cause food allergies in children?
- Cow milk,
- fish and seafood,
- As we mentioned above, foods such as honey are among the foods that cause allergies, especially up to 1 year old.
What are the symptoms of food allergy?
- Skin problems (itchy rashes, swellings, hives),
- breathing problems (wheezing, swelling in the throat),
- Stomach problems (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, gas),
- Circulatory problems (dizziness, white skin)
These symptoms may appear immediately after the child eats a food, within a few hours or a few days. However, in some cases, such as peanut allergy, much more dangerous situations can arise.
- Swelling in the throat and tongue
- Shortness of breath,
- Conditions such as loss of consciousness are called anaphylactic reactions, and when these occur, the condition becomes serious.
How is food allergy treated?
If the above-mentioned problems occur after the child consumes any food, the situation is actually obvious. But your doctor can do some skin and blood tests to be sure. If food allergy is confirmed after these tests, treatment is started.
In fact, the only element in the treatment of food allergy is to remove the food that causes the reaction from the child’s diet. If you remove both the food itself and the foods it contains from your child’s diet list, you will not need any additional treatment.
However, as we mentioned above, food allergies can be temporary. Therefore, from time to time, you can have an idea about the situation by observing if your child has a reaction by tasting the food that causes allergies.
However, you should be wary of allergies like peanuts and fish. Because of these foods, allergic reactions can continue for life.
What is hay fever/nasal allergy (allergic rhinitis)?
If your child shows some cold symptoms but no symptoms such as fever or weakness, hay fever or nasal allergy may be in question. If this occurs especially in the spring months, pollen allergy can also be mentioned.
The most triggering factors for this type of child allergy, which is generally seen due to genetic reasons, are;
- Home dust,
- Animal hairs.
Hay fever usually occurs in children over the age of 2.
What are the symptoms of hay fever?
- nasal congestion ,
- Itching and discharge in the nose,
- tearing eyes
- Red or swollen eyes
- dark circles under the eyes,
- Snoring due to congestion
- The need for throat clearing
- Postnasal drip and associated night coughs are among the most common nasal allergy symptoms.
How is hay fever treated?
The goal when treating a hay allergy is to reduce symptoms and improve the child’s quality of life. That’s why your doctor may recommend some nasal and throat sprays. Apart from these, antihistamine drugs taken in pill form may also be useful. However, these drugs can have side effects such as drowsiness, drowsiness or hyperactivity.
What is hives?
Depending on some conditions in the child’s body;
- middle white,
- Does not crust,
- If itchy rashes occur, we can talk about hives.
These rashes can be seen in only one part of the body, such as the face, or they can spread to the whole body. Sometimes the rash may disappear in one area and appear in another.
What causes hives?
- It can occur in response to a virus or infection.
- It can be a reaction of food allergies such as peanuts, fish, eggs.
- It can be seen as a side effect of some drugs.
How is hives treated?
Your doctor may recommend antihistamine medications to relieve itching and rashes. Apart from this, it may also be useful to apply a cold compress to the itchy area.
What is an insect allergy?
This type of allergy is caused by insect bites or stings. It is usually related to the child’s particular sensitivity to the venom of the insect to which he was bitten. Mosquito allergy can also be evaluated under this title.
Symptoms may differ from child to child. Some show mild allergic reactions, while others may need emergency treatment.
How is insect allergy treated?
Although this type of allergy is uncomfortable on the day of the case, its symptoms usually disappear the next day and do not require treatment. Since itching and mild swellings are generally seen, cold compresses can be applied to relieve them.
If your child has been stung by a bee, then you may need a doctor’s attention. Because bee stings can cause much more serious problems such as large swellings in the body.
If your child has the following symptoms after being bitten by an insect, you should definitely consult a doctor:
- difficulty breathing,
- fatigue, weakness,
- Swelling near the eyes, lips, or penis.